Comparison of Phacoemulsification Grooving Efficiency in Longitudinal Grooving

Comparison of Phacoemulsification Grooving Efficiency in Longitudinal Grooving

Plain Language Abstract

Cataract surgical procedure entails breaking apart and eradicating the pure lens with a phacoemulsification (phaco) gadget, after which changing the pure lens with a man-made one. Phaco grips and settings will be modified to attain a wide range of objectives. Though phaco may be very secure, the process can put the cornea vulnerable to irreparable harm. One of many danger components is the time and power used throughout phacoemulsification. Due to this fact, it’s within the surgeon’s curiosity to optimize the settings for environment friendly elimination of the pure lens.

On this examine, we in contrast the effectiveness of longitudinal and transverse pullers. Pork lenses soaked in formalin had been used to copy the pure lens of an individual with cataracts. This mannequin was developed by our laboratory and described in different research. Effectivity was measured by the point it took to separate the lenses into two elements utilizing a course of referred to as gouging.

Our findings on this examine are essential in figuring out which handpiece is essentially the most environment friendly for grooving.


Cataract is a typical, correctable reason for imaginative and prescient loss worldwide. Fashionable cataract elimination surgical procedure is carried out by eradicating the cataracted lens by phacoemulsification (phaco) and changing it with a man-made lens. A doable complication of cataract elimination is that extended phacone could cause harm to different buildings of the attention, together with the,2 Due to this fact, phaco optimization is vital to decreasing the size of the process and minimizing harm to the attention. Bottle top, vacuum, aspiration circulate charge, energy, and head kind (longitudinal or transverse) are variables that may be adjusted to extend phaco effectivity. The aim of this examine is to measure grooving instances at varied energy settings to find out optimum energy settings. It additionally compares the longitudinal and transverse pullers. The tip of the longitudinal handpiece vibrates backwards and forwards, whereas the tip of the transverse handpiece vibrates in an elliptical sample with some longitudinal motion. This examine is one in all our analysis sequence on the Whitestar Signature Professional phaco system.3,4

Supplies and strategies

Lenses had been collected from all pig eyes bought from Visiontech, Inc. (Sunnyvale, Texas, USA) and despatched to the John A. Moran Eye Heart. After harvesting, they had been instantly immersed in 10 mL of 10% formalin answer, the place they remained for two hours (measured from including the final lens to the answer). After therapy with formalin, the lenses had been rinsed with balanced saline answer (BSS) and positioned in a BSS tub for twenty-four hours. After this preparation was accomplished, the lenses had been randomly chosen and positioned one after the other within the grooving chamber.

Whitestar Signature Professional phaco system (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. Johnson & Johnson Imaginative and prescient [J&J], Santa Ana, California, USA) was used for trenching. A Whitestar Phaco Handpiece System was used to energy the neck, and a Whitestar Signature Ellips Handpiece offered diagonal energy.

The gouging chamber was developed by our laboratory to simulate the surroundings of the lens throughout surgical procedure. It consists of a plastic base with a clear plastic cap. Contained in the chamber is a hemisphere with a diameter of 16 mm (Figure 1).5 Every lens was positioned contained in the chamber after which crammed with BSS earlier than channeling. The gouging continued by dividing the lens in half at its widest level. Groove instances had been measured with a hand-held stopwatch and recorded by a second researcher with out being proven to the primary researcher. This course of was repeated by the second researcher, who was unaware of those adjustments, with energy settings adjusted in a semi-random order between every lens. Twenty lenses had been threaded with a longitudinal handpiece at energy settings of 25%, 50%, and 75%. The method was then repeated with the transverse handpiece. Vacuum was set to 300 (peristaltic), aspiration circulate charge of 30, and bottle top of 90 all through all trials.

Figure 1 Aerial view of tapper with cap removed (top left), front view of tapper (middle left), side view of tapper with handpiece in (top right), aerial view of tapper with hand tool in (bottom left), and side view of tapper (bottom right). The interior of the chamber is 16 mm wide, 16 mm long (from the front to the point of the pentagon, which is the back of the chamber), and 16 mm high.

note: Reproduced with permission of Dove Medical Press. Thomson RS, Bird BA, Stutz LA et al. Effect of increased power when opening channels using phacoemulsification. Clinical Ophthalmol. 2019;13:611–615.5

Statistical evaluation

One-factor ANOVA from the Information Evaluation add-in for Microsoft Excel was used to match imply, imply, variance, and teams.


The imply grooving time for longitudinal adjustment was 4.972 ± 0.84, 4.8525 ± 0.5715 and 4.645 ± 0.989 seconds for 25%, 50%, and 75% energy, respectively. The imply grooving time for the transverse setting was 5.22 ± 0.758, 4.77 ± 0.83 and 4.63 ± 0/69 seconds for 25%, 50%, and 75% energy, respectively (figure 2). The distinction in grooving instances between longitudinal and transverse adjustment at 25%, 50% and 75% energy was negligible (P>0.05). There was no distinction in grooving instances between the longitudinal settings examined (P>0.05). Between transverse settings, grooving instances had been statistically completely different as energy elevated (P=0.035).

figure 2 Average grooving times for longitudinal and transverse settings.


At each power setting, the longitudinal and transverse pullers on the Whitestar Signature Pro phaco system produced similar results. For each respective handpiece, there is a trend towards decreasing grooving times for higher power settings, indicating increased productivity. The transverse handpiece had a statistically significant reduction in gouging times at increasing power settings. Therefore, the transverse handpiece may be more affected by changes in strength than the longitudinal handpiece.

Grooving efficiency is an important feature during phaco. The phaco duration and the amount of energy dissipated during phaco increase the likelihood of damage to the corneal endothelium. More power typically increases efficiency; however, increased power can also increase the squeaking and negative effects caused by the excess energy transmitted. Therefore, the goal of phaco settings should be to find an optimal power setting with enough power to minimize phaco time without increasing power to the point of excessive chatter that could nullify the benefits of higher power.

The porcine model of the cataract lens is most similar to human cataracts rated 3+ and 4+ when comparing data from DeMill et al and Oakey et al.6,7

Dewan et al discovered greater frequency phaco related to lowered phaco length in exhausting cataracts.8 They in contrast two frequencies in sufferers with grade 4.0 to six.9 senile cataracts: 28 kHz and 42 kHz. Their energy is about to 40%. In our system, the frequency of the longitudinal handpiece is 29 kHz and the frequency of the transverse handpiece is 38 kHz. Our findings confirmed no important distinction between the 2 ultrasound modalities. The most probably clarification is that the variations within the two modality designs are extra important than the frequencies used.

Christakis et al carried out a comparative examine evaluating longitudinal, transverse, and torsion in affected person instances.9 Much like our findings, they didn’t discover a statistically important distinction between longitudinal and transverse for phaco length.

When channeling a cataract, the lens is immobile. It is a very completely different state of affairs in comparison with a dial that strikes throughout the anterior chamber. Elimination of quadrant lens elements on transverse ultrasound has been proven to be extra environment friendly than longitudinal ultrasound, a minimum of partly, as a result of elevated squeaking that happens within the longitudinal mode.6,10,11th Transverse ultrasound tends to carry the lens piece on the tip, permitting for extra environment friendly work on the lens. Throughout gouging, an motionless lens and an ultrasound needle are superior into the cataract; and the effectivity seems the identical whether or not the needle strikes lengthwise or elliptical.

In consequence, grooving time doesn’t help in selecting between transverse and longitudinal phaco utilizing the Whitestar Signature Professional system. The desire of the surgeon appears to be extra essential within the collection of the ultrasound mode used within the channel opening part of cataract surgical procedure.


ANOVA, evaluation of variance; BSS, balanced saline answer; phaco, phacoemulsification.

Moral Approval and Knowledgeable Consent

As a result of no human topics had been included, approval was not obtained from the College of Utah Institutional Evaluation Board.


Susan Schulman assisted in modifying and getting ready the manuscript.


This work was supported partly by an unrestricted grant from Analysis to Prevention Blindness, Inc., New York, New York, USA to the Division of Ophthalmology and Visible Sciences, College of Utah, Salt Lake Metropolis, Utah, USA. The sponsor was not concerned in any of the phases from the examine design to the publication of the article.


Dr Olson sits on Understand Bio’s Board of Administrators and Good Lens’s Scientific Advisory Board. Dr Jeff Pettey reported a Consulting contract for Lensar exterior of the offered work. Different authors reported no battle of curiosity on this examine.


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11th. Ronquillo CC small, Zaugg B, Stagg B et al. Willpower of optimum torsional ultrasound energy for cataract surgical procedure with computerized longitudinal pulses at ex vivo most vacuum. Ben J Ophthalmol. 2014;158:1262–1266.e1262. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2014.08.034

#Comparability #Phacoemulsification #Grooving #Effectivity #Longitudinal #Grooving

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